V.I.E.T.N.A.M. by 4D printing of composites


  • Suong V. Hoa* Concordia Center for Composites (CONCOM), Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Aerospace Engineering, Concordia University, Canada
  • Daniel I. Rosca Center for Research on High Performance Polymers and Composites (CREPEC), Canada


alphabet letters, anisotropy, 4D printing of composites


This paper presents an application of 4D printing of composites (4DPC) to make composite structures of complex geometries without the need for complex moulds. This application is illustrated through the formations of the letters V, i, e, t, n, a, and m, which form the word Vietnam. In the procedure, laminates made of carbon/epoxy prepregs are laid on a flat mould. The deposition of the prepregs on the flat mould is done using an automated fibre placement machine (AFP), which can be considered as a large size 3D printer. For a smaller structure, the prepreg deposition can be accomplished using an AFP machine or by hand lay-up. Upon curing and cooling to room temperature, the laminate transforms itself from a flat configuration to the shape of the intended letter, except for the letter V. The mechanism that enables this transformation relies on the anisotropy of the laminate. This method has many potential applications, particularly in the delivery of bulky three-dimensional structures to remote locations.



Classification number





Received 6 September 2021; accepted 26 October 2021

How to Cite

Suong V. Hoa, & Daniel I. Rosca. (2022). V.I.E.T.N.A.M. by 4D printing of composites. Vietnam Journal of Science, Technology and Engineering, 64(2), 34-41. https://doi.org/10.31276/VJSTE.64(2).34-41



Physical Sciences