Referencing Style

Please keep in mind: The Vietnam Science, Technology and Engineering (VJSTE) is a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary journal, for that reason, the reference styles might vary across disciplines. VJSTE uses the Harvard referencing style with modification, please refer to the detailed rules below to format references before submitting your manuscript.

I. In-text citation

Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarise, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your article, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. References should be cited in the bracket with a number, for example [1]. Multiple reference citations are separated by commas, for example [2, 3] or if a series, dashes [4-6].

When citing sources with the author(s) and the year, they should be shortened to the first author’s name, followed by et al. (with more than one author) and the year. For example, A.J. Athen, et al. (2020) or Z. Khanisa (2019).

When citing a source of organization(s), provide the name of the organization(s) (full or abbreviation) and the year. For example, General Statistics Office of Vietnam (1999) or WHO (2021).

II. Reference list

References are numbered in the order they appear to indicate where they are cited in the text. The numbers are given in square brackets, for example: ([1], [2], [3]…). Format each entry in your reference list using a first-line indent.

Note: Some of the below components can be unavailable for some real types of sources but try to provide as much information as possible concerning authorship, availability, and identification of the sources.

1. Journal

Initial(s) and first/last name of the author(s) (Year of publication), "Title of journal article", Title of JournalVolume(Number) (if any), page numbers (if any), DOI (if any), URL and accessed date (if any) (in its original language if not English).

For example:

          [1] H. Sun, S. Wang, X. Hao (2016), “An improved analytic hierarchy  process method for the evaluation of  agricultural water  management  in  irrigation  districts of North China”, Agricultural Water Management179, pp.324-337, DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2016.08.002.

          [2] E.C. Rochera, R.C. Jordan, V.E. Guitart, et al. (2011), “Analytical  hierarchical  process  as  a  decision  support  tool  in  water  resources  management”,  J. Water Supply Res. T.60(6), pp.343-351, DOI: 10.2166/aqua.2011.016.

In which:

Initial(s) and first/last name of the author(s): The author(s) of the reference or cited work. With less than or equal to three authors, list all the author(s). With more than three authors, the first three should be listed and followed by et al.

For example: C.I. Costello, L. Cao, S. Gelcich, et al. if there are more than three authors; D.M. Morris if there is only one author.

Year of publication (given in parentheses): The year when the reference was published.

For example: (1998) for work published in 1998.

“Title of journal article”: Title of journal article should be written with the first letter of the first word capitalised and all subsequent words should be written in lowercase (with the exception of proper nouns and after the colon), and in quotes.

For example: Article entitled The Future of Food From The Sea should be cited as “The future of food from the sea”.

Title of Journal: The journal title (full or abbreviation) should be written with every major word capitalised (in italics). To find the correct abbreviations for journal names to use in your citations, consult the Bibliographic Guide for Editors and Authors (BGEA) or Serial Sources for the BIOSIS. When in doubt, provide the full title of a journal.

For example: Journal of sustainable tourism should be cited as Journal of Sustainable Tourism or J. Sustain. Tour.

Volume(Number) (if any): Volume or volume and number (number in parentheses) of the journal should be written in bold.

For example: Volume 60, number 2 should be cited as 60(2); Volume 2 should be cited as 2.

Page numbers: pp.first page-last page of the article cited or the total number of pages (number+pp) (if any).

For example: The article referred to from page 5 to page 15 should be cited as pp.5-15; 10pp if total number of pages are 10.

When citing different and non-continuous pages, list separate page numbers. For example: p.5, p.17, p.20 if referred to pages 5, 17, and 20 of the same article.

DOI: DOI number of the reference (if any).

For example: DOI: 10.1016/j.jfineco.2008.10.007.

URL and accessed date (if any): For example: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/588/1/, accessed 20 June 2018.

References in languages other than English must be translated into English and indicate the original language in parentheses at the end of a reference.

For example: (in Thai) used for the reference written in Thai, (in French) used for the reference written in French...

Note:

If references by the same author(s) are in the same year, then the in-text citations need to add a letter after the year. The alphabet order corresponds to their order in the reference list.

For example: (2021a) and (2021b) are used when citing two different articles published in 2021 by the same author(s).

When citing different pages in different references, but having the same article by the same author, in the same year, provide the specific page number.

For example: Kitchen (1982, p.39) and Kitchen (1982, p.45) when there are two references citing pages 39 and 45, respectively in the same article written by Kitchen.

If multiple works published in different years by the same author, list separate citations for each work.

2. Book

Initial(s) and first/last name of the author(s)/editor(s) (Year of publication), “Chapter of book” (if any), Title of Book, Name of Publisher, page numbers (if any), DOI (if any), URL and accessed date (if any) (in its original language if not English).

For example:

          [1] A.B. Carroll (2018), “Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate social performance (CSP)”, The SAGE Encyclopedia of Business Ethics and Society, SAGE Publications, Inc., pp.746-754, DOI: 10.4135/9781483381503.n265.

          [2] P.V. Duc, D.H. Toan, T.V. Doan, et al. (2008), Social Justice, Social  Responsibility and Social Solidarity, Social Sciences Publishing House, 643pp (in Vietnamese).

In which:

Initial(s) and first/last name of the author(s): The author(s) of the reference or cited work. With less than or equal to three authors, list all the author(s). With more than three authors, the first three should be listed and followed by et al.

For example: C.I. Costello, L. Cao, S. Gelcich, et al. if there are more than three authors; D.M. Morris if there is only one author.

For books with anonymous or no author, use the editor’s name instead (add Editor(s) or Ed(s). after the last editor's name).

For example: C.L. Hwang, K. Yoon (Editors/Ed(s).) are used when citing book without author.

Year of publication (given in parentheses): The year when the reference was published.

For example: (1998) for work published in 1998.

“Chapter of book”: Title of chapter of book should be written with the first letter of the first word capitalised and all subsequent words should be written in lowercase (with the exception of proper nouns and after the colon), and in quotes.

For example: Book chapter entitled The Future of Food From The Sea should be cited as “The future of food from the sea”.

Title of Book: The book title (full or abbreviation) should be written with every major word capitalised (in italics).

For example: Book entitled Multiple attribute decision making: methods and applications should be cited as Book Entitled Multiple Attribute Decision Making: Methods and Applications.

Name of Publisher: Name of publisher should be written with every major word capitalised. For example: Yale University Press when citing book published by the Yale University Press.

Page numbers: pp.first page-last page of the chapter cited or the total number of pages (number+pp) (if any).

For example: The chapter referred to from page 5 to page 15 should be cited as pp.5-15; 10pp if total number of pages of the book are 10.

When citing different and non-continuous pages, list separate page numbers. For example: p.5, p.17, p.20 if referred to pages 5, 17, and 20 of the same article.

DOI: DOI number of the reference (if any).

For example: DOI: 10.1016/j.jfineco.2008.10.007.

URL and accessed date (if any): For example: https://www.academia.edu/41115354/Multivariate_Data_Analysis_7th_Edition, accessed 20 June 2018.

References in languages other than English must be translated into English and indicate the original language in parentheses at the end of a reference.

For example: (in Thai) used for the reference written in Thai, (in French) used for the reference written in French...

Note:

If references by the same author(s) are in the same year, then the in-text citations need to add a letter after the year. The alphabet order corresponds to their order in the reference list.

For example: (2021a) and (2021b) are used when citing two different articles published in 2021 by the same author(s).

When citing different pages in different references, but having the same book by the same author, in the same year, provide the specific page number.

For example: Kitchen (1982, p.39) and Kitchen (1982, p.45) when there are two references citing pages 39 and 45, respectively in the same book written by Kitchen.

If multiple works published in different years by the same author, list separate citations for each work.

3. Document/Report of University/Organization/Government

Author(s)/University/Publishing body (Year of publication), Title of Document/Report, page numbers (if any), URL and accessed date (if any) (in its original language if not English).

Note: - Kindly follow the detailed rules on how to write author(s)/university/publishing body, year of publication, page numbers, URL and accessed date as abovementioned for Journal and Book.

Title of Document/Report should be written with every major word capitalised (in italics).

For example:

          [1] Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (1996), Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, https://one.oecd.org/document/OCDE/GD(96)102/en/pdf, accessed 20 August 2019.

          [2] Vietnam Government (2023), Resolution No. 82/NQ-CP dated May 18, 2023 on Main Tasks and Solutions to Accelerate Recovery and Accelerate Effective and Sustainable Tourism Development (in Vietnamese).

          [3] A.J. Gwinner (2020), Implementation Framework to Realise The Smart Factory - Development of a Practical Framework to Leverage The Organisational Implementation of The Smart Factory, Jönköping University, 79pp.

4. Thesis and Dissertation

Initial(s) and first/last name of the author(s) (Year of publication), Title of Thesis and Dissertation, page numbers (if any), DOI (if any) (in its original language if not English).

Note: - Kindly follow the detailed rules on how to write author name(s), year of publication, page numbers, DOI, URL and accessed date as abovementioned for Journal and Book.

         - Title of Thesis and Dissertation should be written with every major word capitalised (in italics).

For example:

          [1] D.T. Dinh (2003), Supply and Demand of Rice Products and Key Solutions to Develop Vietnam’s Rice Market, Doctoral Thesis in Economics, National Economics University, Hanoi (in Vietnamese).

5. Article in the Proceedings of the Conference

Initial(s) and first/last name of the author(s) (Year of publication), “Title of article”, Name of Conference/ProceedingsVolume(Number) (if any), page numbers (if any), DOI (if any), URL and accessed date (if any) (in its original language if not English).

Note: - Kindly follow the detailed rules on how to write author names, year of publication, title of article, volume(number), page numbers, DOI, URL and accessed date as abovementioned for Journal and Book.

          - Name of Conference/Proceedings should be written with every major word capitalised (in italics).

For example:

          [1] T.N. Dang, L.T.  Loi, L.T.V.  Phuc (2022), “Relationship between PM2.5 and low birth weight infant in Ho Chi Minh city: A spatial nested case control study”, ISEE Conference Abstracts2022(1), DOI: 10.1289/isee.2022.P-1187.

6. Article on the website and online/electronic resources

Initial(s) and first/last name of the author(s) (Year of publication), “Title of article”, Title of Website/Magazine/Newspaper/Other Electronic Resources (if any), DOI (if any), URL and accessed date (in its original language if not English).

Note: - Kindly follow the detailed rules on how to write author names, year of publication, title of article, DOI, URL and accessed date as abovementioned for Journal and Book.

          - Title of Website/Magazine/Newspaper/Other Electronic Resources should be written with every major word capitalised (in italics).

For example:

          [1] O.  Usman, S. Assagaf (2022), “Analysis of the relationship between the family environment, learning styles, and peers with learning outcomes”, SSRN, https://ssrn.com/abstract=4127997, accessed 20 August 2022.

7. Post/article without author name and/or publication date on the website

Name of organization (year of publication) (if any), “Title of the post/article”, URL and accessed date (in its original language if not English).

Note: - Kindly follow the detailed rules on how to write name of organization, year of publication, title of article, URL and accessed date as abovementioned for Journal and Book.

          - “Title of the post” should be written with the first letter of the first word capitalised and all subsequent words should be written in lowercase (with the exception of proper nouns and after the colon), and in quotes.

For example:

          [1] Vietnam Association of Seafood Exporters and Producers (2020), “Strategy to develop the seafood industry to achieve  export  turnover  of  20  billion  USD  by  2030”,  https://vasep.com.vn/chu-de-thao-luan-tai-dai-hoi-toan-the-2020/chien-luoc-phat-trien-nganh-thuy-san-dat-kim-ngach-xuat-khau-20-ty-usd-nam-2030-11432.html, accessed 10 July 2022 (in Vietnamese).

          [2] World Health Organization (2022), “What are the WHO air quality guidelines?”, https://www.who.int/news-room/feature-stories/detail/what-are-the-who-air-quality-guidelines, accessed 24 July 2023.

III. Footnote

Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used.  Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.